The antitumor and anti-infective properties of peptides have been known for more than 20 years. Regulatory proteins that function in all living beings on our planet are part and parcel of complex biochemical cascades providing an adequate response to a traumatic injury, infection, or neoplasm. Regulatory peptides activate immune cells, stimulate effective interactions of lymphocytes with viruses and bacteria, and set up human antitumor immunity against malignant neoplasms.
In the early 1990’s of the last century, Professor Giorgi Alexidze isolated several groups of plant regulatory peptides from the whorled Solomon’s-seal (Polygonatum verticillatum). These peptides were found to have a molecular weight of 15 to 98 kilodaltons. Owing to the relatively small size, such peptides can affect not only membrane receptors, but also penetrate into cells through membrane pores. This enables them to react with intracellular structures: regulatory peptides and genes, ligands and enzymes. Subsequently, due to numerous experiments, the first-ever gene protector based on plant regulatory peptides, the immunotropic drug GA-40, has been derived.
GA-40 interacts with membrane components: lectin receptors, T-cell receptors, phospholipids, and glycoproteins. Inside the cells, GA-40 peptides change the microstructure and active potential of such elements in regulatory cascades as microRNA associated proteins, a caspase system, protein kinases, prointerleukins, interleukins, etc.
The uniqueness of GA-40 is that under the conditions of a decrease in antitumor immunity due to aggressive activity of tumors, or post anticancer chemotherapy, exogenous peptides restore immune surveillance and trigger apoptosis of cancer cells, and vice versa, under the conditions of immunocompetent molecule hyperproduction in the case of inflammatory processes, particularly in the kidneys, plant peptides are capable of reducing the peptide-peptide interaction intensity and prevent unwanted damages and apoptosis of nephrocytes.
The history of invention and study of the immunotropic and gene-protective properties of GA-40 is presented in the monograph GA-40. New Immunotherapeutic & Anti-Cancer Drug by Professor Giorgi Alexidze, which was published in 2014 in the United States by Lambert Academic Publishing. Feb 12, 2014.
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