The incidence of hepatitis of various etiologies is increasing across the globe. Five per cent of the population upon average is infected with viral hepatitis.
In 2019, there were 56,000 patients with hepatitis C and more than 40,000 patients with hepatitis B registered in Ukraine, but the actual picture of the infection rate is at least greater by an order of magnitude. The inflammatory liver diseases, including viral hepatitis, often lead to cirrhosis. The incidence of hepatic cirrhosis caused by different reasons is 7–10% upon average. The disease is most frequently diagnosed in over-40 population; men suffer twice as frequently as women.
The liver is a unique organ. And not only because it takes part in almost all biochemical processes of the body, and at the same time, it is a natural filter and a detoxification center. The hepatic tissue is the only one in our body that is able to recover almost completely after any adverse effects. But even the liver's patience is not inexhaustive. Systematic alcohol use, food toxins, secondary infection – all this can lead to inflammatory and degenerative changes in the liver tissue. The hepatic cells are damaged every second and find reserves for recovery, but there comes a point of time when the regenerative mechanisms fail to function properly. A damaged hepatic cell, whether it is a hepatocyte, a stellate cell, or an epithelial cell, starts to overproduce a specific protein. i.e. a transforming growth factor (TGF). This protein accompanies the transformation of hepatic cells into myofibroblasts, which create fibrous fibers. Thus, fibrosis occurs, which grades within a given period into cirrhosis. It is important to promptly force on the foci of fibrotic tissue in the liver in order to achieve its involution, or regression. However, it is much more productive simply to prevent fibrous degeneration. The GA-40 peptide immunocorrector effectively copes with these.
Having a wide variety of spatial configurations and different molecular weights, the plant peptides of GA-40 are able to react with both membrane and intracellular structures of hepatocytes. Peptides protect hepatic cells from the harmful actions of pathogenic viruses, prevent the virus integration into the nucleus of the hepatocyte, and also, due to the intracellular blockade of the TGF-beta1 trigger protein, prevent the transformation of hepatocytes into fibrous fiber-producing cells. But most importantly, if the fibrous tissue in the liver has already started to form, the peptides of GA-40 are capable of activating enzyme systems that destroy fibrotic microfibrilles and promote their utilization by macrophages.
Thus, GA-40 has indisputable advantages in the treatment of chronic liver diseases, namely:
• Protects hepatocytes from attacks of viral particles and promotes the regeneration of hepatic tissue
• Prevents the development of fibrosis due to the blockade of the TGF-beta1 trigger protein
• Stimulates the regression of cirrhotic changes in the liver due to the activation of enzyme systems
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. There are about 1.67 million new cases diagnosed across the globe and more than 500,000 women die of breast cancer each year. This means every 20 seconds one woman is diagnosed with breast cancer and more than three women die every 5 minutes.
Currently, more than two dozen conventional cytostatics have been registered and used for the treatment of breast cancer, grouped on the basis of their chemical structure and different mechanisms of action. Unfortunately, it is impossible to achieve a significant increase in the proportion of cured patients with early stages or to improve the survival rate of patients with a disseminated process even when trying to increase the dosage of chemotherapeutic agents or to use inhibitors of the known mechanisms of tumor resistance to cytostatics.
The reason is obvious: despite the new methods of treatment and the most modern chemotherapeutic agents, in most cases the patient’s antitumor immunity is still unaddressed. The emergence of a malignant neoplasm in a woman is already evident of impaired immune processes, and the addition of toxic chemotherapy inflicts additional damage to the woman’s immunity, which is often not possible to regain. In such cases, you have to rely upon outside help, in particular, on preparations of plant-derived peptides.
From 2007 till now, more than 100,000 patients worldwide have decided to regain their health and plans for the future with the benefit of the GA-40 peptide immunocorrector. Not only hundreds of thousands of clinical cases, but also the results of nonclinical and clinical studies in the clinics and laboratories of different countries – Japan, USA, Russia, Ukraine, Georgia – give assurance in a positive treatment outcome. Practical experience proves the unique properties of plant peptides to react with the membranes of affected cells and activate the mechanisms of their programmed death. In addition, the peptides of GA-40 attract additional reserves of the immune system to work on tumors, such as T-lymphocytes, phagocytes, and NK-cells. It is also important to note that GA-40 improves the tolerance to chemotherapy, which allows patients to undergo a complete cycle of treatment and in a timely manner.
Female patients and their families should remember that even after tumor removal, even after systemic chemotherapy, there are still hundreds and thousands of cancer cells in the body, which migrate around the body through the blood and lymphatic vessels. Conglomerates of cancer cells migrating throughout the body are called tumor microemboli. Taking root in normal tissues, they are waiting in the wings to start developing and grow. Additional resources are required to prevent recurrences and metastases, with which often fails to cope the endogenous immunity. GA-40 prevents recurrences and metastases due to its ability to program the cancer cell death and enlist immune cells.
Thus, GA-40 has three essential effects for the prevention and successful treatment of breast cancer:
• Adhesion on tumor cell membranes in the primary focus, as well as in new locations
• Initiation of programmed cancer cell death
• Involvement of the supplementary reserves of antitumor immunity to combat with the disease
Modern epidemiology studies have clearly established a rapid increase in the incidence of skin melanoma (SM) throughout the world. One of the main triggers underlying this phenomenon is considered to be the recent increase in the total exposure time of human skin to the ultraviolet spectrum of natural sunlight for various reasons, while the skin is not always genetically prepared for this. According to the SEER (The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) program, the incidence of melanoma has increased by 600% since 1950 to 2000 and continues to increase. Every year, at least 50,000 people die from melanoma globally. Melanoma is one of the most malignant human tumors, which is formed as a result of malignant transformation of the pigment cells (melanocytes) and is characterized by rapid metastatic spreading into the internal organs.
Over the past 10 years, the considerable experience has been gained in GA-40 administration for melanoma. The inclusion of GA-40 into melanoma treatment regimens is conditioned primarily by the fact that plant peptides have confirmed their unique properties in the prevention of early metastasis of aggressive tumors. Plant peptides have various molecular weights of15 to 98 kDa and are able to react with the membrane structures of cancer cells, attracting T-cells and phagocytes to them. But most importantly, the peptides of GA-40 confirmed their ability to program an atypical cell for natural death. Consequently, tumor tissue receives a double blow: on the one hand, peptides use additional resources of the immune system to fight against atypical cells; on the other hand, peptides independently integrate into cell metabolism, causing its apoptosis. Thus, the use of GA-40 in patients with aggressive malignant neoplasms significantly improves the results of protocol treatment regimens.
Undoubtedly, the most important aspect in the treatment of malignant disease is the prevention of early metastasis. Multiple studies have confirmed even after early tumor removal and after several cycles of chemotherapy, cancer cells remain in the body. Upon completion of combined treatment, the task of preventing recurrence and metastasis is the responsibility of the patient’s antitumor immunity. However, the patient’s immune system is almost always extremely weakened if not ruined by the toxic effects of chemotherapy. The GA-40 plant immunocorrector is designed to bring the patient back to life and recoup strength. Due to the ability to stimulate apoptosis of cancer cells, GA-40 prevents recurrences and metastases, and also activates antitumor immunity.
Thus, GA-40 has all the necessary capabilities for successful treatment of melanoma:
• The ability to attach to the membranes of malignant cells and attract immune cells to them
• The ability to initiate programmed death of atypical cells
• The ability to attract supplementary reserves of antitumor immunity
Despite the current clear concept of background and pre-malignant processes and cervical cancer (CC), as well as a fairly reliable test control (cytology, colposcopy), the cervical cancer still remains one of the topical challenges of gynecological oncology. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, 371,000 new cases of cervical cancer are registered annually worldwide and 190,000 women die from it. Majority of CC cases (78%) occur in the developing countries, where it is the 2nd most common cause of death from cancer. In the last 20 years, a steady increase in the cervical cancer morbidity has been seen in Ukraine.
In most cases, cervical cancer is preceded by pre-malignant conditions such as dysplasia, leukoplakia, and papillomas.
If a woman is diagnosed with dysplasia and the papilloma virus infection is confirmed, it is necessary not only to undergo a planned therapy, but also to be regularly examined by a gynecologist for a possible recurrence. Apart from the background therapy, the woman’s body needs additional resources to fight the virus and prevent tumors. The plant peptides of GA-40 cope with this task.
GA-40, due to the properties of its peptides to react with the membrane, cytoplasmic and nuclear structures of the cells, not only protects the cervical epithelium from virus entry, but also deprives the latter of the opportunity to replicate inside the cell and cause damage to such intracellular structures as RNA, regulatory proteins, ligands, and DNA. In addition, if the damaged cell is not viable, the peptides of GA-40 stimulate the apoptosis, i.e., programmed death. This process cleans the cervical mucosa of dangerous cells and creates conditions for growth of normal ones.
While making a serious diagnosis of cervical cancer and besides chemotherapy and surgical treatment, it is necessary to support the woman’s antitumor immunity. Even after tumor removal, even after systemic chemotherapy, hundreds or thousands of cancer cells remain in the body, which can cause recurrences and metastases, leading to fatal outcomes. Additional resources are required to prevent return of the disease. Due to the ability to stimulate apoptosis of cancer cells, GA-40 prevents recurrences and metastases, and also activates antitumor immunity.
Thus, GA-40 has three essential effects for the prevention and effective treatment of cervical cancer:
• Protection of normal cells from viruses
• Apoptosis stimulation of infected, damaged, and cancer cells
• Activation of antitumor immunity
Kidneys are the primary organ to excrete toxins entering the human body. A large number of nephrons provide a great surface of glomerular endothelial cells and tubular epithelium for contact with them. The surface of capillary endothelia is affected by the direct impact of toxins in the process of ultrafiltration. Another feature of the glomerular endothelial cells that can be a contributing cause factor of kidney damage is the negative charge of the filter membranes. Positively charged ligands can, as induced by electrostatic forces, precipitate on such membranes and alter the glomerular permeability.
The class of highly nephrotoxic agents includes many metals, in particular cadmium, mercury, lead, chromium, arsenium, iron, and boron.
This is due to the ability of these substances to form depots in the parenchymal organs, and their long half-life. The effects of a metal complex not infrequently lead to a renal tissue damage and progressive kidney failure.
Most heavy metals stimulate the formation of toxic free oxygen radicals in organs and tissues followed by intensified lipid peroxidation. Not only they potentiate the free oxygen radical formation in tissues, but also inhibit the oxidative metabolism of immune cells, resulting in damage and inflammation development in tissues, in particular in kidneys.
The studies have shown GA-40 has pronounced nephroprotective effects due to the following mechanisms. Firstly, GA-40 reduces the mercury content and tumor necrosis factor in the renal cortex at the polyuric stage of mercury-induced nephropathy, which has a positive effect on the proximal part of nephron.
Secondly, the reduction of the vasoconstrictive collagen-stimulating potential of angiotensin 2 and thromboxane A2 under the influence of GA-40 implements its anti-nephrosclerotic action in chronic phase of Masugi’s nephritis and prevents tubular and glomerular atrophy of the nephron due to pro-apoptotic process inhibition.
Thirdly, the ability of GA-40 to suppress inflammation due to deregulation of proinflammatory cascades, including the caspase system and the NF-kB regulatory peptide involvement, and, as a consequence, to prevent the occurrence of fibrotic changes against lesional tissue, creates the essential prerequisites for the incremental structural and functional recovery of the nephron. In this sense, the safety profile of the product comes to the forefront. After all, in the nephritis treatment strategy, it is not enough simply to neutralize or eliminate targetedly nephrotoxic substances. This neutralization and elimination should be done safely for the kidney tissue. And in this sense, the nephroprotective effect of GA-40 also appears, which can be called secondary nephroprotection.
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